|1819 – 24th May||Alexandrina Victoria, the future Queen Victoria, is born at Kensington Palace. Her parents are Edward, Duke of Kent, and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield.|
|1837 – 20th June||Victoria becomes Queen after the death of her uncle William IV on the 20th June 1837. She was only 18 years old and came of age just one month before the King’s death.|
|1837 – 26th June||Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s cousin, writes her a letter congratulating her on her accession to the throne. Click here to read the letter.|
|1838 – 28th June||Queen Victoria’s Coronation – Victoria is crowned queen at Westminster Abbey. She becomes the first British monarch to use Buckingham Palace as her residence.|
|1839||The scandal of Lady Flora Hastings – The Queen is accused in a press campaign of spreading false and disgraceful insults about Lady Hastings because the Queen believed her to be pregnant out of wedlock. Lady Hastings actually had a terminal abdominal tumour and died the same year.|
|1840 – 10th February||Queen Victoria marries her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha at a ceremony in the Chapel Royal at St James’s Palace. Victoria’s mother is evicted from the Palace and Victoria rarely visits her.|
|1840||Edward Oxford fires two shots at Queen Victoria and Prince Albert as they are riding in a carriage in London. Both shots miss and 18 year old Oxford is arrested and tried for high treason. He is later acquitted on the grounds of insanity.|
|1840 – 21st November||The royal couple’s first child, Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa, is born at Buckingham Palace. Princess Victoria was created Princess Royal of the United Kingdom in 1841 and grew up to become the German Empress and Queen of Prussia when she married Emperor Frederick III.|
|1841 – 9th November||The royal couple’s second child, Albert Edward, was born at Buckingham Palace. As the heir to the throne, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, he also inherited the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony from his father. He became Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 8th December 1841, Earl of Dublin on 17th January 1850, a Knight of the Garter on 9th November 1858 and a Knight of the Thistle on 24th May 1867.
He became King Edward VII, rather than King Albert, on his mother’s death in January 1901. He was married to Princess Alexandra of Denmark.
|1842 – 29th May||John Francis fires a pistol at the Queen while she is riding in her carriage. He is immediately arrested and then tried for high treason. His death sentence was commuted to “transportation for life” i.e. deportation.|
|1842 – 13th June||Queen Victoria makes her first train journey from Slough Railway Station to Bishop’s Bridge, near Paddington, with Prince Albert and Isambard Kingdom Brunel, engineer and creator of the Great Western Railway. Victoria and Albert are both shaken by the speed of the train – 20mph!|
|1842 – 3rd July||John William Bean attempts to shoot the Queen, although his pistol was only loaded with paper and tobacco. He was arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison.|
|1843 – 25th April||Victoria and Albert’s third child is born – The Princess Alice, christened Alice Maud Mary. Alice grew up to be the Duchess of Hesse as consort of Louis IV Grand Duke of Hesse. Alice’s great-grandson, Prince Philip the Duke of Edinburgh is married to the present Queen of the UK, Elizabeth II.|
|1844 – 6th August||A fourth child is born to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert – Alfred Ernest Albert. He was born at Windsor Castleand was known to the family as “Affie” because he was such an affable boy. He joined the Royal Navy in 1856 and became the Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Kent and Earl of Ulster on 24th May 1866 and the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 23rd August 1893.
He was married to the Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia.
|1846 – 25th May||Queen Victoria gives birth to her fifth child, Princess Helena (Helena Augusta Victoria). Princess Helena married Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein in 1866, an impoverished German prince, but stayed in London and became her mother’s unofficial secretary. Princess Helena was the most active member of the royal family and an active patron of charities.|
|1848 – 18th March||A sixth child, Louise Caroline Alberta, is born to the royal couple at Buckingham Palace. She was christened Louisa but was known as Louise. Princess Louise was an artist, sculptor and supporter of the feminist movement. She also was her mother’s unofficial secretary before she married John, Marquess of Lorne, heir to the Duke of Argyle. She died at the age of 91 in 1939 and was the longest surviving of the Queen’s nine children.|
|1850 – 1st May||A seventh child, Arthur William Patrick Albert, was born to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert at Buckingham Palace. He entered the Royal Military College at Woolwich at the age of 16, became a lieutenant in the British Army and served for 40 years. He was Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Earl of Sussex and between 1911 and 1916 he was the Governor General of Canada. He was married to Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia.|
|1851||The Great Exhibition opens in London’s Crystal Palace. It was organised by Prince Albert and the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce and was the first in a series of international fairs celebrating culture and industry.|
|1853 – 7th April||Queen Victoria and Prince Albert’s eighth child is born at Buckingham Palace – Leopold George Duncan Albert. During her labour, Queen Victoria was administered chloroform by Dr John Snow and therefore sanctioned the use of anaesthesia in childbirth. Prince Leopold studied at Christ Church, Oxford, where he obtained an honorary doctorate in civil law. He became the Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence and Baron Arklow in May 1881.
Prince Leopold inherited haemophilia from his mother and died in 1884 after a fall in Cannes, France. It is said that his haemophilia along with the morphine he had been given, mixed with the wine he had consumed earlier, all contributed to his death.
Leopold was married to Princess Helene Friederike.
|1856||The Victoria Cross (VC) is created as an award for bravery – It is the highest military decoration and is awarded to members of the armed forces of the British Commonwealth, then the British Empire, for valour “in the face of the enemy”. It was created on 29th January by Queen Victoria to reward bravery during the Crimean War.|
|1857||Queen Victoria names Ottawa as the capital of Canada.|
|1857 – 14th April||
Birth of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert’s ninth child, Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore, at Buckingham Palace. Queen Victoria relied on Beatrice’s company after the death of Prince Albert in 1561 and called her youngest daughter “Baby”.
It looked like Beatrice would never be able to get away from her mother , as Victoria was against her marrying, but Beatrice fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg. Beatrice finally persuaded her mother to give her blessing to the marriage in 1885 and she became Princess Henry of Battenberg. However, Beatrice and Henry had to live with the Queen and Beatrice had to continue being the Queen’s unofficial secretary.
After Henry’s death from malaria in 1896, Beatrice devoted her time to her mother and after her mother’s death she collated Victoria’s journals and set about editing them. She died aged 87 in 1944.
Beatrice’s grandson is King Juan Carlos of Spain.
|1857 – 25th June||Queen Victoria grants her husband, Prince Albert, the title of Prince Consort. He had previously been known as HRH The Prince Albert because Parliament had been opposed to the title of Prince Consort.|
|1861 – 14th December||Prince Albert dies of Typhoid Fever said to be due to the very primitive sanitary conditions at Windsor Castle. Queen Victoria was devastated and wore black for the rest of her life. She also withdrew from public life, preferring to spend her time at Balmoral, Osborn House or Windsor Castle, away from the public eye. As well as being in a permanent state of mourning, Queen Victoria had Prince Albert’s clothes laid out very day for forty years after his death.
Queen Victoria’s state of mourning earned her the nickname “The Widow of Windsor”.
It is said that she blamed the Prince of Wales for Prince Albert’s death because his wayward behaviour had led to Prince Albert travelling unnecessarily to Camridge to sort his son out.
|1861||Queen Victoria announces that Britain is neutral in the US Civil War.|
|1863||Edward, Prince of Wales, marries Princess Alexandra of Denmark.|
|1867||Queen Victoria lays the foundation stone of the Royal Albert Hall. She opens it in 1871.|
|1877||Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India.|
|1887||Queen Victoria celebrates her Golden Jubilee – 50 Years as Queen. The Jubilee Plot, plans to blow up Westminster Abbey and kill the Queen, is discovered and stopped.|
|1896 – 25th September||Queen Victoria becomes the longest reigning monarch in British history, beating George III.|
Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee – 60 years as monarch. The Diamond Jubilee consisted of processions, outpourings of affection for the popular Queen, tree planting and a special thanksgiving ceremony at St Paul’s Cathedral.
|1899||Queen Victoria lays the foundation stone of the Victoria and Albert Museum.|
|1901 – 22nd January||Queen Victoria dies aged 81 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. She is succeeded by her eldest son who becomes King Edward VII.|
|1901 – 2nd February||Funeral of Queen Victoria – Queen Victoria was dressed in white with her wedding veil and her coffin was draped with the Royal Standard. She was buried h one of Prince Albert’s dressing gowns, a lock of her personal servant John Brown’s hair in her left hand, a picture of John Brown and John Brown’s mother’s wedding ring on her finger. She was interred at Frogmore Mausoleum, beside her husband and as she was buried it began to snow. She hated black funerals so it was ordered that London should be decorated in purple and white.
Queen Victoria had been Queen of 63 years, seven months and two days, making her the longest reigning monarch in Britain.
|1902 – 9th August||Coronation of Edward VII and his wife Alexandra at Westminster Abbey. Edward reigned for only 9 years, dying on 6th May 1910 after a series of heart attacks. It is said that his habit of smoking 20 cigarettes and 12 cigars every day caused constant bronchitis and other health problems towards the end of his life. He was succeeded by his second son, George V, his elder son Albert Victor having died.|